The name of the breed derives from a province (Borders) located between Scotland and England, where these dogs were quite popular.
According to some historians, the Border Collie is a descendant of shepherd dogs brought from Scotland during the Viking invasions and subsequently crossed with other shepherds. After the heyday of the wool production in the XIII century, he was the favorite dog of the English shepherds because of the undeniable qualities he possesses.
For ancestor of the Border Collie is considered Old Hemp (1893), owned by farmer Adam Telfer. This dog attracted by his unusual guarding skills.
In 1881 was developed the breed standard. The name "Border Collie" was launched in 1915 by D. Reid, who later became secretary of the International Association for shepherd dogs. The name "Border" was added because the best working dogs of the breed were from the border area between southern Scotland and northern England.
Border collie are medium-sized dogs that have extreme physical characteristics and moderate coat, which in most cases is quite thick and change frequently. Their double coat comes in many different colors - black and white, brown, red, chocolate, blue, purple etc.
Eye color varies from dark brown to amber or blue. Sometimes their eyes are of a different color. Border collie ears also differ. Some are brought up, some are semi, others are hanging down.
Dogs that are bred for exhibitions have a different appearance than their “brothers” who work in the field.
Character and behavior
The Border Collie needs a lot of exercise and mental stimulation. This breed is very intelligent and not accidentally gain the first place on the Stanley Coren's intelligence board. Although this is a working dog, in recent years more and more people began to accept Border collie as a pet.
Families who choose to grow this breed must be ready to provide the necessary walks and games.
He is a tireless hard worker, ready to follow the orders of his owner. The Border Collie ties to all family members, but he selects one leader, to whom he gives his special affection. You must win his respect with kindness and consistency without ever resorting to unnecessary forms of violence.
Training and education
The exercises are not enough for these highly intelligent and very energetic animals. They are working dogs and want to use their body and brain doing various tasks. The Border Collie has boundless energy, embrace hard work and entertainment. They love to chase a ball or return renegade sheep back into the flock.
The average life expectancy of the Border Collie is about 10 to 15 years. Hip dysplasia, eye abnormalities and epilepsy are considered primary genetic diseases of the breed. Other common health problems are: glaucoma, Osteochondritis, hypothyroidism, diabetes and elbow dysplasia.
Children and other pets
The Border Collie shows outstanding affection and protection for young children and communicating with him give them incomparable joy. This is an excellent family dog as long as he is raised and socialized from a very early age. His instincts of pastoral dog, however, cannot be overcome and he could chase other pets.
As with any dog, you should teach your child how to approach the Border Collie and do not touch him while he is eating or sleeping.
Some breeders avoid dogs whose predominant color is white, as they think that the sheep do not have the necessary respect for white dogs. However, this claim has absolutely no evidential basis. According to the American Association for Border collie, dog's working ability is unrelated to its appearance.
Just recently Canadian researchers from the University of British Columbia concluded that the Border Collie is the most intelligent of all breeds. In 2011, a Border collie has learned to respond correctly to 1022 commands which is an unbelievable achievement.